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Human And Animal Sex Videos !FULL!

Video sharing platforms, such as YouTube, offer an opportunity to address some of the above issues. YouTube has been used to study sequential behaviours and human-dog interactions within the context in which they occur (e.g. during dog-training) and to collect a more diverse sample of behaviours than veterinary caseload data permits36,37. YouTube provides a chance to observe the interactions leading to a bite directly, in a naturalistic context. This is important as bite education strategies are often structured around the ladder of aggression38. This theory proposes that dog behaviours before a bite escalate gradually (in the time immediately before the bite or over the years), with some behaviours (like lip licking or head turning), being shown earlier in time than other behaviours (like growling or teeth-barring38).

human and animal sex videos

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This study has the following aims: 1) to summarise the contexts in which dog bites occur and to describe victim and dog characteristics using YouTube videos of bites, 2) to describe human and dog behaviour preceding a bite, 3) to examine factors that predict the perceived severity of a bite using variables extracted from YouTube videos, and 4) to evaluate YouTube as a novel method of collecting data about dog bites.

To describe human behaviour preceding bites, the following behaviours were included: macro-movements near the dog (i.e. head and body turns, standing over a dog, moving legs, arms or objects towards the dog), types of tactile contact with a dog, (i.e. petting, hugging, hitting, restraining, pushing, pulling, holding a body part and lifting), vocalisations, body position and locomotory behaviours (direction in relation to the dog and pace). The descriptions of human behaviours are based on previous studies exploring human-dog play interactions43 (see Supplement 2 for human behaviour ethogram).

To understand the association between bite severity score and context, victim and dog characteristics, we used a hierarchical regression model. The distribution of the bite severity scores was checked and data were assumed gamma distributed, as on visual inspection the data fit the gamma model better than models for positive integers, e.g. Poisson. Bite severity scores were the dependent variable in these models and were modelled (using a log-link) as a function of: bite context, the duration of the interaction in seconds, dog size, victim sex, victim age, the anatomical location of the bite, and whether the human or dog initiated the interaction. The model was hierarchical because varying intercept parameters were included for different bite contexts, and those intercepts were constrained by a common distribution. This approach reflected that the bite contexts are not completely independent of one another but are a subset of possible categorisations. This allowed partial-pooling of bite severity estimates across contexts, which often results in more accurate predictions45, particularly when the number of data points per hierarchical group (e.g. the context of a bite) are highly variable46, which was the case here. For comparison, we also display the sample mean bite severity and 95% confidence interval (CI), derived from non-parametric bootstrapping, for each bite context.

Patterns of changes in human behaviour (petting, restraining and standing over the dog) preceding the bite. Dots indicate observed proportions, clines represent 3-point moving averages and the shaded area the 95% confidence intervals for the observations.

The regression model with mean and 95% HDI estimates identified no significant differences in bite severity between bite contexts. This could be because there may be more similarities between bite contexts than differences, making the distinction between contexts difficult. However, the analysis of sample mean and bootstrap 95% CI suggested that territorial bites and bites in public spaces were more severe than other bites. Bites in the context of benign and unpleasant interactions and resting were less severe, which reflects previous research27. The bootstrap analysis also indicated that when a dog initiated the interactions (vs. a person), bite severity was greater. Bites in the context of benign interactions and unpleasant interactions may be more inhibited as the victim involved is likely to be more familiar with the dog. It is also plausible that the dog-initiated interactions in general may include more offensive aggression, whereas the human-initiated interactions may reflect more of the defensive aggression56. Different motivation to aggress could explain differences in severity as, in cases of defensive aggression, a dog may strive to warn off, which may result in a lesser severity of bite.

Using YouTube to study dog bites enabled us to carry out observations of bites of diverse severity, in naturalistic settings and across a range of contexts. The benefit of this approach is that permits studying human and dog behaviours preceding bites, which is not possible with other retrospective methods. However, the sample generated through YouTube search is subject to some biases as the frequency of bites in a given context and the victim and dog characteristics could reflect the likelihood with which these interactions are filmed and the self-selection bias for uploading videos online. The quality of videos and editing styles varied across the sample which meant that we could not collect a fine level of detail from each video. Small sample size meant that the analysis of body language had to be restricted to simple descriptive statistics, which is a further limitation of this method.

Cartoon illustrating the Calcigender paradigm as formulated by De Loof [2]. It says that it is a general principle in the Animal Kingdom that the Ca2+-homeostasis system displays substantial differences between males and females. Females extrude more Ca2+ than males do, a process in which sex steroids play an important role. Not only an 44+XX and 44+XY chromosomal configuration like in humans, but a variety of other sex-determining systems in other animals all yield such sex-related differential Ca2+-homeostasis, invariably with females extruding more Ca2+ through their reproduction-related activities than males. Because they are lipophilic, steroid sex hormones enter the membrane system of all cell types. They have effects on the Ca2+ system of all cells and tissues, the brain inclusive. The differences in green colour are only meant to indicate that there are differences in the complex whole Ca2+-homeostasis system, not to represent quantitative differences only. Indeed [Ca2+]i is very variable, e.g. due to short-lived Ca2+-puffs [3].

There is no generally accepted definition of gender, because the concept itself is not static but dynamic [20]. According to Weed [21] the meaning of gender depends on who uses the word, in what context, and for what ends. A few examples of definitions as used in medicine or in the humanities, in particular in sociology are:

Cartoon illustrating the idea that the main difference between the various gender forms resides in the Ca2+-homeostasis system, in particular that present in some brain areas. Given that the human brain contains about 100 billion nerve cells, it is de facto impossible that two individuals have exactly the same Ca2+-homeostasis system in the totality of their brain, even if these two individuals are identical twins. This figure illustrates the commonly observed situation that the sexual thinking and behaviour of transgenders reflects more the situation of the other heterosexual somatic sex than their own somatic genetic sex. Between these two depicted extremes, numerous intermediate forms are theoretically possible. Indeed, it is more likely that not the whole brain but specific brain regions can display (subtle) changes in Ca2+ homeostasis with effects on behaviour as a result.

From the study of comparative physiology of reproduction in vertebrates and invertebrates, it has become clear that many aspects of reproduction involving (hetero) gametes came into existence long ago in evolution, and that they have been very well conserved since [7]. For biologists this means that gender as a biological concept not only has a meaning for our own species Homo sapiens with its complex social organization, but for numerous other animal species as well. It also means that there must exist an evolutionarily well conserved genetics-based system that codes for key aspects of reproductive behaviour. The link between genetics and sex hormones is documented since long. In this paper, I emphasized the importance for gender in general, and for reproduction-linked behaviour in particular of the Ca2+-homeostasis system which is also largely genetics-based. This system is very versatile and dynamic. Due to the frequent occurrence of Ca2+-puffs (which are usually very short-lived) in many cell types and in particular in muscle cells, it is not easy to determine the exact [Ca2+]i in such cells. Hence my statement that all cells of a differentiated organism differ from each other, is not based upon exact measurements. It is deduced from a theoretical statistics-based argument, namely far too many causal agents play a role.

I can imagine that without a knowledgeable insight into the fundamentals of animal physiology and development, the hypothesis that sexual reproduction results from an evolutionarily ancient sort of prokaryotic (bacterial) infection of a proto-eukaryotic cell that eventually became the common ancestor of all eukaryotes, is at first encounter perceived as both counterintuitive and far-sought. Yet there are sound scientific arguments to support this view [7]. Not only is the reproductive state a disease state, it is not even a mild one, but a death-causing state: Sex kills is one of the numerous theories explaining aging phenomena [55]. In addition, the view that the female body, the brain inclusive, is somewhat more poisoned by Ca2+ than the male one [2] may sound discriminatory towards females in general, but it is not, to the contrary. The explanation is that the beneficial effects Ca2+ undoubtedly has in the body result from the fact that short-lived rising Ca2+ concentrations ( = toxic puffs) are causal to them, e.g. in biochemical signalling (Ca2+ as secondary messenger). As an example, in many species, females live longer than males, despite, or better thanks to the toxicity of Ca2+. Females have better means to remove excess Ca2+ from their body, and can therefore better cope with the toxicity of Ca2+. Yet, decalcification of the skeleton resulting in osteoporosis that affects woman more than man is a negative aspect.

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